Monument record IKL 039 - London Bottom, Icklingham, (Palaeolithic-Neolithic).

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Late Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic finds from "London Bottom".


Grid reference Centred TL 7709 7361 (1017m by 712m)
Map sheet TL77SE


Type and Period (1)

Full Description

Circa 1906: `digging begun' of gravel for road making `strictly' along bottom of valley known as `London Bottom'. The gravel is noted as being `nowhere more than 30 or 40 feet wide' and averaging about 2 feet thick, underlaying 3-4 feet of sand and overlying shattered chalk. Notes `immense series of implements from this gravel' which divided into black unpatinated (Neolithic) and an older white patinated long blade (Later Upper Palaeolithic) industry, and clearly states both industries were intermixed within the gravel. He describes the white patinated industry as `including flakes about 6 inches by 1 inch' and `about a dozen'... "dos rabattu knives" (4-5 inch long backed blades). He states no `midgets' (microliths) were found (S1, S2). In Mesolithic gazetteer (S3) although Wymer later accepts the Neolithic & Late Upper Palaeolithic dating.

Wymer states `no signs of workings now visible' (S4), but note TL 767734 (former IKL 055) may be part of these gravel workings and may be alternative siting for Sturge's discoveries (see S9). However, letter from Wymer in February 1989 states "some years ago there were fairly deep irregular pits there with little but sand exposed in them" (S6).

October 1956: "An attempt was made ... (by J Wymer & his father)... to expose this gravel ... a small excavation (?at TL 774 739) revealed 1.27m of brown and yellow sand above a very chalky gravel, in which no artefacts were found" (S4). There are an unquantified number of blades/flakes, 4 scrapers, 4 gravers, 12 backed tools and 2 others in British Museum (S3). Grid reference of Wymer excavations after Wymer (S6).

Billington (S10) notes the presence of curved bakced blades, straight backed blades and two cheddar points, this suggests a mixed assemblage.

Formerly divided by period and at two possible locations, (IKL 039, IKL 054), see above for discussion.

Sources/Archives (13)

  • --- Bibliographic reference: The Upper Paleolithic of Britain. 1977. Campbell, J, B,.
  • --- Bibliographic reference: Tilley, C,. 1979. Post-glacial communities in the Cambridge Region.
  • <S1> Article in serial: Sturge, W. A.. 1912. Implements of the Later Palæolithic “Cave” Periods in East Anglia.
  • <S2> Article in serial: Sturge, W. A.. 1913. The Bearing of the Drayson Theory on the Problems Presented by Striated Neolithic Flints.
  • <S3> Bibliographic reference: Wymer, J.J. & Bonsall, C.J.. 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic sites in England and Wales, CBA Research Report 20.
  • <S4> Bibliographic reference: Wymer, J.J.. 1985. Palaeolithic Sites of East Anglia.
  • <S6> Personal Correspondence: Wymer J J,. 1989. letter & map, 27 February 1989.
  • <S7> Bibliographic reference: Smith, R.A. 1931. Sturge Collection.
  • <S8> Digital archive: Jacobi, R.. 2014. Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Lithic Artefact (PaMELA) database. 6932, 602.
  • <S9> Unpublished document: Basil Brown. Basil Brown Archive. XCVI, 65, Map 4.
  • <S10> Bibliographic reference: Billington, L, P.. 2016. Lithic Scatters and Landscape Occupation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic: A Case Study from Eastern England.. P 188.
  • <S11> Cartographic materials: MIHLM. 6 inch record map.
  • <S12> Digital archive: Historic England. National Record Of the Historic Environment.

Finds (12)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (3)

Record last edited

Feb 22 2021 12:14PM

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